Viruses assigned to the genus Alpharicinrhavirus form a distinct monophyletic group based on well-supported Maximum Likelihood or Maximum Clade Credibility trees inferred from complete L sequences. Members of the genus have been detected in hard ticks (family Ixodidae). They are distant phylogenetically from viruses assigned to the genus Betaricinrhavirus.
Viruses assigned to the genus have not yet been isolated or visualized by electron microscopy.
Alpharicinrhavirus N, P, M, G and L proteins share sequence homology and/or structural characteristics with the cognate proteins of other rhabdoviruses. Wuhan tick virus 1 (WhTV-1; species Alpharicinrhavirus wuhan) appears to lack a gene encoding the class I transmembrane glycoprotein (G). Alignment of the G proteins of other alpharicinrhaviruses with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus indicates they share all 12 conserved cysteine residues that are typical of animal rhabdovirus G proteins (Walker and Kongsuwan 1999, Roche et al., 2006).
Genome organisation and replication
Alpharicinrhavirus genomes include only the five genes (N, P, M, G and L) encoding the structural proteins (Figure 1.Alpharicinrhavirus). The absence of the G gene in two samples of WhTV-1 collected in different locations and at different times appears to indicate this is a genuine gene deletion rather than a sequencing artifact. Alternative small ORFs (>180 nt) occur in some genes. It is not known if they are expressed but small ORFs in P and L genes of the two available samples of WhTV-1 are conserved.
|Figure 1.Alpharicinrhavirus. Schematic representation of genomes of alpharicinrhaviruses shown in reverse (positive-sense) polarity. The five long open reading frames (ORFs) in the N, P, M, G and L genes are shown (open arrows). Alternative ORFs (>180 nt) in some genes are also shown (grey) but it is not known if they are expressed.|
Bole tick virus 2 (species Alpharicinrhavirus bole) was detected in hard ticks (Hyalomma asiaticum) collected in Bole, Xinjiang Province, China, in 2012 (Li et al., 2015). WhTV-1 was detected in hard ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) collected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in 2012 (Li et al., 2015). A second sample of WhTV-1 (also named Rhipicephalus associated rhabdo-like virus) was detected in hard ticks (R. microplus) collected in Yunnan Province, China, in 2016 (Shi et al., 2021). WhTV-1 was also detected in hard ticks (R. microplus) collected from cattle in Nan Province, Thailand, in 2012 (Temmam et al., 2019). Hubei tick rhabdovirus 1 (species Alpharicinrhavirus hubei) was detected in Asian long-horned ticks (Haemaphysalis longicornis) collected in Hubei Province, China, in 2019 (Xu et al., 2021). Blanchseco virus (species Alpharicinrhavirus blanchseco) was detected in a pool of hard ticks (Amblyomma ovale) collected from dogs from the Caribbean island of Trinidad, in 2017 (Sameroff et al., 2019). No isolates are currently available for any of these viruses.
Species demarcation criteria
Viruses assigned to different species within the genus have several of the following characteristics: A) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the N proteins; B) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the L proteins; C) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 15% in the G proteins; D) significant differences in genome organisation as evidenced by numbers and locations of ORFs; E) can be distinguished in virus neutralisation tests; and F) occupy different ecological niches as evidenced by differences in arthropod and/ or vertebrate hosts.
Related, unclassified viruses
|Virus name||Accession number||Virus abbreviation|
|Dermacentor reticulatus rhabdovirus 1||ON684361||DretRV1|
|Guyuan rhabd tick virus 1||ON746521||GyRTV1|
|Haemaphysalis bancrofti rhabdovirus||OK128265||HbanRV|
|Huanggang rhabd tick virus 1||ON746518||HgRTV1|
|Huangpi tick virus 3||KM817630||HpTV3|
|Nanning rhabd tick virus 1||ON746519||NnRTV1|
|Nayan tick rhabdovirus||KP141757*||NyTRV|
|Norway mononegavirus 1||MF141072||NWMV1|
|Norway mononegavirus 1-like virus||MH560586|
|Tacheng tick virus 3||KM817640*||TcTV3|
|Tahe rhabdovirus 1||ON408166||ThRV1|
|Tahe rhabdovirus 2||ON408171||ThRV2|
|Tahe rhabdovirus 3||ON408172||ThRV3|
|Taishun tick virus||KM817643||TsTV|
|Yanbian rhabd tick virus 1||ON746520||YbRTV1|
|Yushu rhabd tick virus 2||ON746530||YsRTV2|
|Zhangjiakou rhabd tick virus 1||ON746531||ZjRTV1|
Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.
* Coding region sequence incomplete