Subfamily: Alpharhabdovirinae

Genus: Replylivirus


Distinguishing features

Viruses assigned to the genus Replylivirus form a distinct monophyletic group based on well-supported Maximum Likelihood or Maximum Clade Credibility trees inferred from complete L sequences. Anole lyssa-like virus 1 (ALLV1; species Replylivirus allogus), currently the only virus assigned to the genus, was detected in a reptile.



Virion morphology is unknown.

Nucleic acid

The ALLV1 genome consists of a single molecule of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA of approximately 11.6 kb (Horie et al., 2021).


The ALLV1 N, P, M, G and L proteins share sequence homology and/or structural characteristics with the cognate proteins of other rhabdoviruses (Horie et al., 2021).

Genome organisation and replication

The ALLV1 genome includes only the five genes (N, P, M, G and L) encoding the structural protein with a long intergenic region (about 180 nt) between the G and L genes (Figure 1.Replylivirus) (Horie et al., 2021).

Replylivirus genome
Figure 1.Replylivirus. Schematic representation of the anole lyssa-like virus 1 genome shown in reverse (positive-sense) polarity. The genome contains only five long open reading frames (ORFs) in the N, P, M, G and L genes (open arrows) and along intergenic region betweel G and L.


ALLV1 was discovered in the brain and skin of a Spainish flag anole (Anolis allogus) collected in Cuba (Horie et al., 2021). No isolate of the virus has yet been reported.

Species demarcation criteria

There is only one species in the genus. For viruses to be assigned to additional species in the genus, several of the following characteristics would have to be observed: A) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the N proteins; B) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the L proteins; C) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 15% in the G proteins; D) significant differences in genome organisation as evidenced by numbers and locations of ORFs; E) they can be distinguished in virus neutralisation tests; and F) they occupy different ecological niches as evidenced by differences in vertebrate hosts and or arthropod vectors.