Subfamily: Alpharhabdovirinae

Genus: Amplylivirus


Distinguishing features

Viruses assigned to the genus Amplylivirus form a distinct monophyletic group based on well-supported Maximum Likelihood or Maximum Clade Credibility trees inferred from complete L sequences. Frog lyssa-like virus 1 (FLLV1; species Amplylivirus cinereus), currently the only virus assigned to the genus, was detected in an amphibian. Amplyliviruses most closely related to replyliviruses, which have been detected in reptiles, and lyssaviruses, which infect mammals.



Virion morphology is unknown.

Nucleic acid

The FLLV1 genome consists of a single molecule of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA of approximately 12.1 kb.


The FLLV1 N, P, M, G and L proteins share sequence homology and/or structural characteristics with the cognate proteins of other rhabdoviruses.

Genome organisation and replication

The FLLV1 genome includes only the five genes (N, P, M, G and L) encoding the structural proteins. Unlike the related replyliviruses and lyssaviruses, they lack a long untranslated region (ψ) between the G and L genes (Figure 1.Amplylivirus).

Amplylivirus genome
Figure 1.Amplylivirus. Schematic representation of frog lyssa-like virus 1 genome shown in reverse (positive-sense) polarity. The genome contains only five long open reading frames (ORFs) in the N, P, M, G and L genes (open arrows).


FLLV1 was discovered in the brain of the American green tree frog (Hyla cinerea or Dryophytes cinereus in different classifications) which has a natural distribution in southern parts of North America and the Caribbean. No isolate of the virus has yet been reported.

Species demarcation criteria

There is presently only one species in the genus. For viruses to be assigned additional species in the genus, several of the following characteristics would have to be observed: A) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the N proteins; B) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 10% in the L proteins; C) minimum amino acid sequence divergence of 15% in the G proteins; D) significant differences in genome organisation as evidenced by numbers and locations of ORFs; E) they can be distinguished in virus neutralisation tests; and F) they occupy different ecological niches as evidenced by differences in vertebrate hosts and or vectors.

Virus nameAccession numberVirus abbreviation
Boana pugnax lyssa-like virus 1MZ682616BpugLLV1

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.