Family: Lispiviridae

 

Jun-Min Li (李俊敏), Fei Wang, Gongyin Ye (叶恭银) and Sofia Paraskevopoulou (Σοφία Παρασκευοπούλου)

The citation for this ICTV Report chapter is the summary published as: 

Li JM, Wang F, Ye G, Paraskevopoulou S. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Lispiviridae 2023 Journal of General Virology, (2023), 104, 001869

Corresponding authors: Jun-Min Li (李俊敏):lijunmin@nbu.edu.cn and Sofia Paraskevopoulou (Σοφία Παρασκευοπούλου):paraskevopoulous@rki.de

Edited by: Jens H. Kuhn and Stuart G. Siddell
Posted: June 2023, June 2024

Summary

Lispiviridae is a family for viruses with negative-sense RNA genomes of 6.5–15.5 kb (Table 1.Lispiviridae). The family includes 25 genera and 34 species for 34 distinct viruses. Most members of this family have been identified within arthropod hosts sampled in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. The viruses are only known from their genome sequences.

Table 1.Lispiviridae. Characteristics of members of the family Lispiviridae

CharacteristicDescription
ExampleAnisopteromalus calandrae negative-strand RNA virus 2 (MW864603), species Anicalvirus hangzhouense, genus Anicalvirus
VirionUnknown
Genome6.5–15.5 kb of negative-sense RNA
ReplicationUnknown
TranslationUnknown
Host rangeArthropods and nematodes of the superphylum Ecdysozoa
TaxonomyRealm Riboviria, kingdom Orthornavirae, phylum Negarnaviricota, class Monjiviricetes, order Mononegavirales; 25 genera and 34 species

Virion

Morphology

Unknown.

Nucleic acid

A single molecule of linear, negative-sense RNA of 6.5–15.5 kb.

Genome organization and replication

Genomes of members of the family Lispiviridae commonly have five to six open reading frames (ORFs) (Figure 1.Lispiviridae). Encoded proteins likely include a glycoprotein and a large protein (L) including an RNA directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) domain.

Lispiviridae genome organisation
Figure 1.Lispiviridae. Genome organization of members of each genus in the family Lispiviridae. ORFs are indicated as boxes, coloured according to the predicted protein function (G, glycoprotein; L, large protein including an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) domain; N, nucleoprotein; P, predicted phosphoprotein; M, predicted matrix protein). The GenBank accession numbers for genome sequences of exemplar viruses for each species are shown to the left of the virus names.

Biology

Members of the family Lispiviridae have been detected in arthropods (hemipterans, odonatans, hymenopterans, orthopterans and arachnids), nematodes, mammals (mice) and bird faeces (Table 2.Lispiviridae), sampled in Asia (China, Thailand), Africa (Gabon), Europe (Spain, Germany, Netherlands) and Oceania (New Zealand, Australia) (Viljakainen et al., 2018, Käfer et al., 2019, Williams et al., 2019, Lay et al., 2020, Huang et al., 2021, Wang et al., 2021, Ye et al., 2022, Zhu et al., 2022).

Table 2.Lispivirdae. Hosts of lispivirids.

Virus genusVirusHost species
AcridvirusHángzhōu acrida cinerea lispivirus 1Short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae: Acrida cinerea)
AleyavirusBemisia tabaci arlivirus 1Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Bemisia tabaci)
AleybvirusBemisia tabaci arlivirus 2Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Bemisia tabaci)
AnicalvirusAnisopteromalus calandrae negative-strand RNA virus 2Parasitoid wasps (Pteromalidae: Anisopteromalus calandrae )
AnidravirusAnisopteromalus calandrae negative-strand RNA virus 1Parasitoid wasps (Pteromalidae: Anisopteromalus calandrae )
AranavirusGuìyáng lispivirus 1Orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae: Argiope bruennichi)
AranbvirusGuìyáng lispivirus 2Orb-weaver spiders (Araneidae: Argiope bruennichi)
ArlivirusLĭshì spider virus 2Spiders (Araneae)
ArlivirusNbu stink bug virus 1Stink bugs (Pentatomidae: Erthesina fullo)
ArlivirusHángzhōu scotinophara lurida lispivirus 1Stink bugs (Pentatomidae: Scotinophara lurida)
AvesvirusArlivirus sp. virus[bird]
Copasivirusisopteran arli-related virus OKIAV103Termites (Termitidae: Occasitermes) and subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes)
CopasivirusJimsystermes virusTermites (Termitidae: Occasitermes)
Cybiterviruscoleopteran arli-related virus OKIAV107Diving beetles (Dytiscidae: Cybister lateralimarginalis)
DamravirusHúběi odonate virus 10Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata sp.)
DamravirusFǔshùn ischnura senegalensis lispivirus 1Damselflies (Coenagrionidae: Ischnura senegalensis)
GaniavirusTǎchéng tick virus 6Soft ticks (Argasidae: Argas miniatus)
HemipvirusHángzhōu eysarcoris guttigerus lispivirus 1Stink bugs (Pentatomidae: Eysarcoris guttigerus)
HemipvirusHángzhōu cletus punctiger lispivirus 1Leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae: Cletus punctiger)
LeocovirusHúběi rhabdo-like virus 3Beetles (Coleoptera sp.)
NematovirusWǔchāng romanomermis nematode virus 2Nematodes (Mermithidae: Romanomermis sp.)
Phelinovirushymenopteran arli-related virus OKIAV99Parasitoid wasps (Aphelinidae: Aphelinus abdominalis)
Rivapovirushemipteran arli-related virus OKIAV94Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae: Trialeurodes vaporariorum)
SanstrivirusSānxiá water strider virus 4Water striders (Gerridae sp.)
Stylovirusstrepsipteran arli-related virus OKIAV104Insect endoparasites of bees (Stylopidae: Stylops melittae)
Supelovirusblattodean arli-related virus OKIAV102Wood cockroaches (Ectobiidae: Supella longipalpa)
Synelinevirushymenopteran arli-related virus OKIAV98Gall wasps (Cynipidae: Synergus umbraculus)
SynelinevirusLinepithema humile rhabdo-like virus 1Ants (Formicidae: Linepithema humile)
UsmuvirusAmsterdam virus[True mice (Muridae: Mus musculus)]
Xenophyvirushemipteran arli-related virus OKIAV95Moss bugs (Peloridiidae: Xenophyes metoponcus)

Hosts in brackets may not be the natural host.

Derivation of names

Acridvirus: from the grasshopper family Acrididae. The species epithet hangzhouense derives from Hángzhōu (杭州市), China, the sample location for Hangzhou acrida cinerea lispivirus 1.

Aleyavirus: from the whitefly family Aleyrodidae, with an added “a” to distinguish it from Aleybvirus. The species epithet fuyangense derives from Fùyáng (阜阳市), China, the sampling location for Bemisia tabaci alrivirus 1.

Aleybvirus: from the whitefly family Aleyrodidae, with an added “b” to distinguish it from Aleyavirus. The species epithet fuyangense derives from Fùyáng (阜阳市), China, the sampling location for Bemisia tabaci alrivirus 2.

Anicalvirus: from the parasitoid wasp species Anisopteromalus calandrae. The species epithet hangzhouense derives from Hángzhōu (杭州市), China, the sample location for Anisopteromalus calandrae negative-strand RNA virus 2.

Anidravirus: from the parasitoid wasp species Anisopteromalus calandrae. The species epithet hangzhouense derives from Hángzhōu (杭州市), China, the sample location for Anisopteromalus calandrae negative-strand RNA virus 1.

Aranavirus: from the spider family Araneidae with an added “a” to distinguish it from Aranbvirus. The species epithet guiyangense derives from Guìyáng (贵阳市), China, the sample location for Guìyáng lispivirus 1.

Aranbvirus: from the spider family Araneidae with an added “b” to distinguish it from Aranavirus. The species epithet guiyangense derives from Guìyáng (贵阳市), China, the sample location for Guìyáng lispivirus 2.

Arlivirus: from the class Arachnida and the city Lǐshì (李市). The species epithet arachnae derives from the class Arachnida, including spiders, the epithet ningboense derives from Níngbō (宁波市), China, the sample location for Nbu stink bug virus 1 and the epithet hangzhouense from Hángzhōu (杭州市), China, the sample location for Hángzhōu scotinophara lurida lispivirus 1.

Avesvirus: from the class Aves. The species epithet sinense derives from “sino-”, the prefix for China, that being the sample location for Arlivirus sp. virus isolate YSN1024.

Copasivirus: from the host genera Coptotermes and Occasitermes. The species epithet ivindoense derives from Ivindo National Park, Gabon, the sample location for isopteran arli-related virus OKIAV103 and the epithet manlyvaleense from Manly Vale, New South Wales, Australia, the sampling location for Jimsystermes virus.

Cybitervirus: from Cybister lateralimarginalis. The species epithet niederense derives from the German word “nieder” meaning “low”, as a reference to “Lower Saxony”, Lüchow-Dannenberg, Lower Saxony, Germany being the sampling location for coleopteran arli-related virus OKIAV107.

Damravirus: from odonate damselflies and dragonflies. The species epithet dentatis derives from dentatum, the Latin word for toothed (odonate is derived from ὀδούς, the Greek word for tooth) and the epithet fushunense from Fǔshùn (抚顺市), China, the sample location for Fǔshùn ischnura senegalensis lispivirus 1.

Ganiavirus: from Argas miniatus. The species epithet tachengense is derived from Tǎchéng (塔城) Prefecture, China, the sample location for Tǎchéng tick virus 6.

Hemipvirus: from Hemiptera. The species epithet scuti is derived from the Latin scutum meaning “shield” and the epithet veri from the Latin verus, meaning “true”, the Cletus being a genus of true bugs.

Leocovirus: from a scrambled contraction of Coleoptera. The species epithet coleopteris derives from Coleoptera.

Lispiviridae: from shì spider virus 2.

Nematovirus: from nematode. The species epithet wuchangense derives from Wǔchāng (武昌) District, China, the sampling location for Wǔchāng romanomermis nematode virus 2.

Phelinovirus: derived from Aphelinus abdominalis. The species epithet aphidis derives from aphid in reference to the use of Aphelinus abdominalis wasps as biological control agents for aphid pests of agricultural crops.

Rivapovirus: from Trialeurodes vaporariorum. The species epithet aleyrodidae is derived from the host whitefly family, Aleyrodidae.

Sanstrivirus: from Sānxiá water strider virus 4. The species epithet gerridis is derived from the host family name Gerridae.

Stylovirus: from the host genus Stylops. The species epithet niederense is derived from the German word “nieder” meaning “low”, as a reference to “Lower Saxony”, Lüchow-Dannenberg, Lower Saxony, Germany being the sampling location for strepsipteran arli-related virus OKIAV104.

Supelovirus: from the host Supella longipalpa. The species epithet thailandense derives Thailand, the sample location for blattodean arli-related virus OKIAV102.

Synelinevirus: from the host genus names Synergus and Linepithema. The species epithet bonnense is derived from Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the sample location for hymenopteran arli-related virus OKIAV98 and the epithet paranaense is derived from Paraná River, the river in South American that constitutes the native range of Linepithema humile ants that are hosts to Linepithema humile rhabdo-like virus 1.

Usmuvirus: from Mus musculus. The species epithet newyorkense derives from New York, USA, the sampling location for Amsterdam virus.

Xenophyvirus: from the host genus Xenophyes. The species epithet mathesonense is derived from Lake Matheson, South Island Westland District, New Zealand, the sampling location for hemipteran arli-related virus OKIAV95.

Genus demarcation criteria

Members of different genera in the family are < 70% identical in RdRP domain amino acid sequence.

Species demarcation criteria

Members of different species in the same genus are <85% identical in RdRP domain amino acid sequence.

Relationships within the family

Phylogenetic relationships of members of the family Lispiviridae are shown in Figure 2.Lispiviridae.

Lispiviridae phylogeny
Figure 2.Lispiviridae. Phylogenetic relationships of viruses in the family Lispiviridae. The phylogenetic tree is based on a MAFFT-alignment of the RdRP amino acid sequences using the L-INS-i algorithm and was inferred using ModelTest-NG and the LG substitution model. Numbers on branch nodes represent transfer bootstrap expectation values (1,000 replicates). The tree is rooted to Bolahun virus (genus Gambievirus, family Xinmoviridae). Genus assignments are shown to the right.

Relationships with other taxa

The viruses in the family Lispiviridae have a similar genome organisation with other members of the order Mononegavirales.

Related, unclassified viruses

Virus nameAccession numberVirus abbreviation
blattodean arli-related virus OKIAV101MT153397BARV101
megalopteran arli-related virus OKIAV106MT153449MARV106
neuropteran arli-related virus OKIAV105MW288169NARV105
hymenopteran arli-related virus OKIAV100MW288216HARV100
Hángzhōu lispivirus 1MZ209712HLPV1
Cát Tiên Hospitalitermes lispi-like virusON082763CTHLV
bat faecal associated arli-like virus 1ON872577BFAALV1

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.