Family: Tulasviridae


Jens H. Kuhn, Scott Adkins, Katherine Brown, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Michele Digiaro, Holly R. Hughes, Sandra Junglen, Amy J. Lambert, Piet Maes, Marco Marklewitz, Gustavo Palacios, Takahide Sasaya (笹谷孝英), Yong-Zhen Zhang (张永振) and Massimo Turina

The citation for this ICTV Report chapter is the summary published as:

Kuhn, J. H., Adkins, S., Brown, K., de la Torre, J. C., Digiaro, M., Hughes, H. R., Junglen, S., Lambert, A. J., Maes, P., Marklewitz, M., Palacios, G., Sasaya, T., Zhang, Y. Z., & Turina, M. (2023). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Tulasviridae 2023, Journal of General Virology 103, 001933

Corresponding author: Massimo Turina (
Edited by: Jens H. Kuhn and Stuart G. Siddell
Posted: November 2023


Tulasviridae is a family of ambisense RNA viruses with genomes of about 12.2 kb (Table 1.Tulasviridae). These viruses have been found in fungi. The family includes a single genus with one species for one virus. The tulasvirid genome is nonsegmented and contains three open reading frames (ORFs) that encode a nucleoprotein (NP), a large (L) protein containing an RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRP) domain, and a protein of unknown function (X).

Table 1.Tulasviridae. Characteristics of members of the family Tulasviridae

ExampleTulasnella bunyavirales-like virus 1 (MN793997), species Orthotulasvirus tulasnellae, genus Orthotulasvirus
GenomeAbout 12.2 kb of nonsegmented ambisense RNA
Host rangeAgaricomycete fungi
TaxonomyRealm Riboviria, kingdom Orthornavirae, phylum Negarnaviricota, class Ellioviricetes, order Bunyavirales; the family includes one genus and one species




Nucleic acid

Tulasvirids have a nonsegmented, linear, ambisense RNA genome with a total length of about 12.2 kb (Sutela et al., 2020).

Genome organization and replication

Viruses of the family Tulasviridae have a nonsegmented ambisense genome with three ORFs that encode an NP, an X, and an L protein containing an RdRP domain (Sutela et al., 2020) (Figure 1.Tulasviridae).

Tulasviridae genome
Figure 1.Tulasviridae. Genome organization of Tulasnella bunyavirales-like virus 1. ORFs are colored according to the predicted protein function (L, large protein gene; NP, nucleoprotein; X, gene encoding a protein of unknown function).


The only classified tulasvirid, Tulasnella bunyavirales-like virus 1 (TB-LV1), was detected in unspecified orchid mycorrhizal agaricomycete fungi (tulasnellaceaen Tulasnella sp.) in association with long-lipped serapias (orchidacean Serapias vomeracea (Burm.f.) Briq.) in Italy (Sutela et al., 2020).

Unclassified tulasvirids have also been found in agaricomycete fungi (strophariaceaen Agrocybe praecox (Pers.) Fayod) in Japan (Zhao et al., 2023).

Derivation of names

Orthotulasvirus: from the Greek ortho, meaning “straight” and the host genus Tulasnella,

tulasnellae, Tulasviridae: from the host genus Tulasnella

Genus demarcation criteria

Not applicable (the family includes only a single genus).

Species demarcation criteria

Not applicable (the only genus includes only a single species).

Relationships within the family

Not applicable (the only genus includes only a single species).

Relationships with other taxa

Viruses of the family Tulasviridae are most closely related to bunyaviral crulivirids, fimovirids, peribunyavirids, phasmavirids, and tospovirids (Huang et al., 2019, Sutela et al., 2020) (Figure 2.Tulasviridae).

Tulasviridae phylogeny
Figure 2.Tulasviridae. Phylogenetic relationships of Tulasnella bunyavirales-like virus 1 with other members of the order Bunyavirales. L protein sequences were aligned using MUSCLE and a maximum likelihood tree was produced using FastTree with default settings. Family branches are collapsed. Numbers at nodes indicate bootstrap support where this was >70%.
Virus nameAccession numberVirus abbreviationReference
Agrocybe praecox tulasvirus 1LC746218ApTV1(Zhao et al., 2023)

Virus names and virus abbreviations are not official ICTV designations.